A new quality assessment and improvement system for print media
© Liu et al; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 27 May 2011
Accepted: 15 May 2012
Published: 15 May 2012
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© Liu et al; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 27 May 2011
Accepted: 15 May 2012
Published: 15 May 2012
Print media collections of considerable size are held by cultural heritage organizations and will soon be subject to digitization activities. However, technical content quality management in digitization workflows strongly relies on human monitoring. This heavy human intervention is cost intensive and time consuming, which makes automization mandatory. In this article, a new automatic quality assessment and improvement system is proposed. The digitized source image and color reference target are extracted from the raw digitized images by an automatic segmentation process. The target is evaluated by a reference-based algorithm. No-reference quality metrics are applied to the source image. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed system. We show that it features a good performance in the extraction as well as in the quality assessment step compared to the state-of-the-art. The impact of efficient and dedicated quality assessors on the optimization step is extensively documented.
Print media collections of considerable size are held by cultural heritage organizations (e.g., libraries and archives) and other content owners (e.g., publishers, financial institutions, hospitals or insurances) have been or will soon be subject to digitization activities. These organizations typically aim at
digitally archiving their print media collection and/or;
making the content available for end-users at a grand scale.
media processing workflow and
final image formats,
especially if the latter were produced using lossy compression.
In this article, technical content quality is understood as the amount of information contained within analog and digital media respectively. To optimally preserve information of the analog media
and many other parameters  have to be faithfully conveyed by the analog-to-digital converter (e.g., camera or scanner) [4–6] and further processing steps in the digital domain. In addition, the detection of unwanted objects like dust, fingers (belonging to the digitization operator) etc. is of similar importance. Recent research approaches in this field are almost exclusively carried out by the industrial sector [2–9] or the cultural sector [1, 10–13] while there are only few publications from the field of basic research dating back to the 1990s [14–16] including a review of results related to image quality research .
Current research carried out in the industry sector focuses on methodologies to measure the analog-to-digital conversion quality of a digitization device using various test targets [2–9]. Among other goals industry research aims at identifying evaluation methodologies and quantifiable parameters (like modulation transfer function, noise, sharpness etc.) that determine the quality of the digitization device. Hence, by using a defined set of parameters that are critical for a faithful analog-to-digital-conversion a quantitative method to standardize the measurement of the quality of digitization devices and to certify digitization service providers may be established.
Present research from the cultural heritage sector mainly addresses technologies and most of all best practices to improve the quality of the digitization process [10, 13, 18] and subsequent optical character recognition (OCR) of archived print media. In contrast to the industrial approach--where the quality of digitization devices is primarily addressed-- research of the cultural heritage sector focuses on the detection of device-independent errors that typically appear in digitization projects (e.g., detection of missing pages, unwanted objects, irregular illumination of the book or document page).
With respect to the management of technical content quality, today's digitization workflows heavily rely on human monitoring and decision making . The major disadvantages of manual quality assessment are:
For example, using a state-of-the-art book scannera,b,c more than 10,000 pages per machine and day can be digitized, which is considerably low when compared to the throughput of document scanners. Given an operator may be able to check the quality of 1,000 digitized pages per day, the workflow would require 10 operators for 100% coverage. Thus, considering the throughput of a set of simultaneously operating machines rather than just one scanner, manual quality assessment makes efficient and cost-effective mass digitization almost impossible.
Vice versa, when using algorithms for quality assessment highly automated digitization workflows can be established and quantitative content quality thresholds or, more general, content quality policies can be introduced. This is of great importance as the quality requirements of an institution may vary with respect to the purpose a collection and even to individual print media items, for example: reproduction (like art prints), automated media analysis like optical character recognition (e.g., books) or viewing on a computer monitor (like invoices).
As of today, quality requirements for various usage scenarios are implemented by rule of thumb rather than quantitative criteria. Not matching the quality requirements may lead either to high costs (for processing and storage if the digital object is larger than necessary) or poor results (for automated media analysis like OCR, long-term preservation or reproduction). Thus, automated tools will lower the costs by greatly improving the degree of automation as well as lowering the efforts to implement the content owner's quality requirements.
In addition, as mass digitization is carried out by a growing number of organizations and by various service providers, general content quality policies cannot be applied. This in turn hampers for example a quality-based cross-institutional content aggregation, a problem that is very common to the cultural sector , and prevents the establishment of quantitative quality guidelines for specific sectors (like medical files in the health care sector).
To sum up, tools for automated quality analysis are a prerequisite for the management of technical content quality in mass digitization environments--not only in the cultural heritage domain, but across various types of organizations that still depend on printed analog media like for example the financial sector, jurisprudence, and health care sector.
Existing systems for automatic quality assessment are mostly based on reference based measurement methods. Thus, they can only be used in combination with their respective targets and are not able to measure quality independently in a no-reference scenario. Most of the existing software for automatic quality assessment of digitized print media rely heavily on expertise of the operator and are not suitable for mass processing.
The Software iQ-ANALYZER 5d by German company Image Engineering allows for the automatic assessment of standardized test targets (Image Engineering have contributed to the development of the Universal Test Target for this specific purpose). The output of the iQ-ANALYZER provides a detailed analysis of many aspects of image quality, yet offers only minimal user assistance for batch processing. The software is specifically tailored for characterization of a machine's capabilities, not for continuous performance monitoring.
The US-based company certifi media offers an integrated software Certifi Pedigree QPe that also uses specialized test targets for image analysis. Pedigree QP offers the creation of quality profiles for batch processing, but is not able to operate no-reference analysis of files that do not include scanned reference targets.
The algorithms described in this article could be used as building blocks for an integrated quality assessment and processing system for still images that originate from a digitization of printed media.
Some of the automated quality assessment (QA) algorithms for still images as proposed by the authors rely on the presence of reference targets within every digitized image file. This is achieved by digitizing the source media and reference target by the same digitization machine in one single pass so that both are contained in one single image file. The color reference target and source media could be located anywhere within the raw digitized image--with the prerequisite that the reference target is contained fully within the raw image files and is not overlapping the source media.
A system encompassing a compilation of the algorithms presented in this article would then be able to handle the following processing and analysis steps:
1. Image segmentation The spatial analysis of the raw digitized images, leading to detection of the digitized media (essence), the color reference target and the scanner background. The bounding boxes obtained by segmentation can then be used for an independent analysis of these elements (cf. Section 3).
2. Reference-based assessment of quality Measurement of color rendering accuracy by analysis of the extracted reference targets (cf. Section 4.1).
3. No-reference assessment of quality Measurement of in-picture contrast, brightness, sharpness, compression block artifacts and overall quality within the extracted source image (cf. Section 4.2).
4. Quality optimization Application of quality analysis to efficient image optimization (cf. Section 4.3).
5. Presentation of layer derivatives The separation of targets and source material can be used for automatic image cropping to create presentation ready derivatives from the raw scans containing both media and targets.
The employment of reference targets in the process of professional digitization or photography is ubiquitous today. Practically all current digitization guidelines aimed at the preservation of cultural heritage material highly recommend the inclusion of reference targets in each of the originals being scanned. Many agencies go even further, advocating the use of several targets in order to allow for a more accurate quantization of the variables involved in the digitization process. A prominent example are the numerous federal agencies from the US adhering to the Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI) . The FADGI suggests as a minimal requirement the use of photographic gray scale as a tone and color reference, as well as the utilization of an accurate dimensional scale. Color reference targets, also known as color checkers are therefore of central importance in any mass digitization process.
Depending on their type, reference targets allow a precise measurement of many different parameters influencing the digitization. Examples of such parameters are: the scale, rotation and any distortions present in the digitized asset, as well as the color and illumination deviation/uniformity. In the following we briefly present a few of the most popular color reference targets in use today:
The classic color checker , initially commercialized starting from 1976 as the "Macbeth" color checker . It contains 24 uniformly-sized and -colored patches printed on a 8.5" × 11.5" cardboard. The colors are chosen so that they represent many natural, frequently occurring colors such as human skin, foliage, and blue sky. Nowadays it is still the most common tool employed for color comparison due to its small size and ease of use (cf. Figure 1a).
The digital color checker SG  contains an extended color palette in the form of 140 quadratic patches. It is tailored to offer a greater accuracy and consistency over a wide variety of skin tones, as well as the provision of more gray scale steps ensuring a finer control of the camera balance and the ability to maintain a neutral aspect regardless of light source (cf. Figure 1b).
The Universal Test Target (UTT)  is one of the most recent open-source efforts for the development of a single reference target covering a large array of scanning parameters. The development of the UTT is an ongoing process directed by the National Library of the Netherlands as part of Metamorfoze , the Dutch national program for the preservation of article heritage. It is available with various options in the DIN sizes A3 to A0 and has as main purpose a general applicability in all kinds of digitization projects, preservation and access, carried out by libraries, archives and museums (cf. Figure 1c).
By using the information extracted with the help of the reference targets, a human operator is able to correct any inaccuracies of the scanning procedure on-the-fly. In case of a fully automated digitization process, a computer algorithm has the possibility of performing accurate corrections on the digitized assets for a better reproduction of the original item. Very little research has been done in the area of automatic color reference target detection. To the best of the authors' knowledge there currently exist no fully automatic solutions to this problem. A step in this direction was recently done by Tajbakhsh and Grigat , who introduced a semi-automatic method for color target detection and color extraction. Their method focuses on images exhibiting a significant degree of distortion (e.g., as caused by perspective, mechanical processes, camera lens). In the process of mass document digitization however, such pronounced distortions are extremely seldom mainly due to the cooperation with professional scan service providers. A commercial software which is also capable of a semi-automatic color target detection is the X-Rite color checker Passport Camera Calibration Software . The X-Rite software ultimately relies on the human operator to manually mark/correct the detected reference target in order to be able to perform any subsequent color correction. Human intervention is of course not practical in any mass digitization process, as it would cause far too large disruptions in the process.
In the following section, we present a fully automatic and robust algorithm for the detection of classic color checker targets in digital document images. Our main focus is its applicability in mass document processing, where robustness and flexibility are of paramount importance. The proposed algorithm can readily be extended to other types of color reference targets, including the digital color checker SG as well as the UTT (cf. Figure 1). An evaluation on a set of 239 real-life document and photograph scans is done to investigate the robustness of our algorithm.
As mentioned in the previous section, our algorithm targets professional scans, as normally found in any mass digitization project. As such, in order to ensure a fully automatic and robust operation, we make a few assumptions. The first assumption is that the scans exhibit no or low perspective distortions. In this respect, the method of Tajbakhsh and Grigat  complements well the proposed algorithm in case or larger distortions. The second assumption is that the scanning resolution is known (exactly or approximately) for each scanned image, which is virtually always true in case of professional scans. A last but very important requirement is that the lighting is approximately constant on the whole image. Note that the last restriction is not specific to our system, but it applies to all methods employing color targets. In case of uneven lighting conditions (e.g., shadows, multiple light sources possibly having different spectral distributions), it is generally not possible to obtain a meaningful automatic color difference measurement/adjustment without a priori knowledge of the lighting conditions. One may easily see this by considering the following exemplary basic situations: uneven lighting solely on the color target or uneven lighting restricted to the scanned object. In the former case, an automated color evaluation would match the (possibly correct) colors from the scanned object to the (partially) wrong ones from the color target, thus reporting large color differences and performing wrong color corrections. The latter case would result in no correction being applied to the object (possibly exhibiting large color shifts), due to the perfect lighting in the region of the color target.
where (cf. Figure 3e,f). The simple Euclidean distance in the sRGB color space has performed well enough in our tests, however, in order to obtain more perceptually accurate color reduction results, one may use any more advanced color measure, such as CIEDE2000 . The codebook consists of the set of colors existing on the color target. Note that all color components for each patch are precisely known, being specified by the reference target manufacturer as both sRGB and CIE L* a*b* triplets . In case of the classic color checker this step results in a color-reduced image having exactly 24 colors.
In the next step, a connected component analysis  is performed on the color-reduced image (cf. Figure 3c). In practice, connected component analysis is extremely fast even for large, high-quality scans because the complexity of the algorithm is constant in the number of pixels in the image. Subsequently we make use of the known scanning resolution to perform a filtering of the potential patch candidates based on their size, namely we discard all connected components having a width or height deviating more than 20% off the expected patch size. Since the shapes as well as the average distances between the color patches on the reference target are also known in advance for each color target model, they are used next as a refinement to the initial filtering. For the classic color checker our algorithm uses the following restrictions:
the (roughly) square aspect of each color patch, i.e., width and height, are within 20% of each other;
the size uniformity between the patches, i.e., area of each bounding box, deviates less than 30% from the median area;
the average distance between direct horizontally or vertically neighboring patches, i.e., distance to closest patch candidate must lie within 15% of the median minimum distance.
All previously mentioned thresholds have been experimentally determined via an independent training image set consisting of a random sample of images with a similar provenience as the images from the test set. The thresholds allow our algorithm to successfully cope with minor perspective distortions, image blur, as well as lens distortions (e.g., chromatic- and spherical aberrations). The remaining connected components constitute the final list of patch candidates. For each candidate we now determine its dominant color as the mean color of the pixels from the original scan located within its connected component. Since the original colors within each patch are relatively close to each other (they were assigned to the same cluster center by the color reduction), such a mean can be computed safely even in the sRGB color space. It is important to observe that generally computing a simple mean is not possible because of resulting color interpolation artifacts, which are highly-dependent on the employed color space, such as color bleeding. Another possibility for assigning a single representative color to each patch would be the use of the median, computed either channel-by-channel or by considering each color as a vector.
A third step consists of the determination of all direct neighborhood relations between the final list of patch candidates (cf. Figure 3d). This is accomplished via a Delaunay triangulation  using as seed points the centers of the patch candidates. Next, the obtained triangulation is pruned of the edges diverging significantly from the horizontal or vertical, as regarded from a coordinate system given by the main axes of the color target. Discarding edges which deviate more than 20% from the median edge length represents an efficient pruning method. Finding one of the axes of the color target can at this point be readily accomplished by determining the median skew angle from the remaining edges. The other axis of the reference target is always considered to be perpendicular to the determined axis.
Color reference target detection results on a heterogeneous dataset consisting of books, newspaper excerpts, and photographs
Color checker Orientation
Although human observers can effectively and easily judge the quality of an image, this is highly time and resource consuming. Therefore, subjective measurements are not suitable in most cases. Three measure classes, i.e., full-reference (FR), reduced-reference (RR) and no-reference (NR) exist in the area of objective image quality assessment. The FR metrics predict the quality of an image based on differences to a reference image. Mean square error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structure similarity (SSIM)  are popular representatives of FR metrics. They are also often used as benchmarks for evaluating RR and NR metrics. As print media must be digitalized before objectively assessing their quality, little reference information can be exploited. Hence, only RR and NR measurements can be used in this context. On the contrary to RR metrics, which use indirect information as a reference, NR metrics predict the quality of images by extracting and modeling prior knowledge on specific distortions. Thus, an objective NR metric will typically be designed for measuring a particular distortion type .
In the following sections, the proposed quality assessment system will be presented in two steps. First, color deviations via an RR metric will be analyzed. Second, the distortions of the scanned image will be assessed via NR metrics. We will thereby distinguish between structural distortions, which distort the structures of textures like blocking artifacts and blurriness, and non-structural distortions such as brightness and contrast . These NR metrics will additionally be combined into an overall quality metric.
Commonly used professional scanners, either flatbed scanners or high-resolution DSLR cameras, capture the RGB components of the scanned image. These RGB components are then calibrated by some specific color calibration programs . However, even after the calibration step, the color distribution of the scanned document may still significantly deviate from that of the original because of different photosensitive materials, refraction and reflection of different materials or the illumination conditions. The degree of color shift is an important a priori information, which should be assessed before the quality evaluation of the scanned document.
Based on the CIE76  criteria, if , the difference is already noticeable. However, if , the difference can be evaluated as a different color  and the ICC profile of the analog-to-digital device needs to be re-customized.
In this section, major structural and non-structural distortions are measured by different NR metrics. The single NR metrics are finally integrated into an overall quality metric.
where is the width of edge e i  and w JNB (e i ) is the width of the JNB. If the standard contrast (cf. Equation 10) of an edge region is larger than 50, the corresponding wJNB(e i ) is measured to be 3, otherwise to be 5 . The parameter β controls the curvature of the psychometric probability function. β values are chosen between 3.4 and 3.8 with a median at 3.6 by means of least-square fitting .
which denotes the sum of the blur probabilities of all edge blocks with the best sharpness values. wJNB(b) is the edge width of the JNB based on the contrast of the block b.
where m HC denotes the center of mass of the high frequency components in the histogram h.
In practice, the areas near the boundaries of an image are less important for human observers than the rest areas within the image . They are thus ignored to save runtime costs in this work.
Contrast, in the terms of vision, is the difference in luminance of the background and the objects of interest. Visually apparent contrast is an important perceptual attribute of an image for human observers to distinguish objects from their background. The study of contrast sensitivity  shows that contrast is mainly dependent on the brightness and the dynamic range of the image.
The contrast of an image is referred to as the Euclidian distance between the mass centers of the upper and lower parts of the luminance histogram projected onto the bin axis .
where L u /L l is the average mass of the upper/lower part and L a is the average mass of the luminance channel. L u , L l , and L a are projected onto the bin axis.
The brightness measure corresponds to L a in this work. Brightness can be seen as a secondary attribute of contrast. If the image has good contrast but poor brightness, it means that, although the image has some bright areas, most areas are dark.
Human observers judge an image subjectively based on its overall quality . The quantification of single image properties by objective metrics is not enough to simulate human perception. In contrast to the common FR metrics, which can be used to measure generic distortions of an image, state-of-the-art NR metrics will typically be applied to specific distortions . We thus propose a NR metric for overall quality assessment that integrates the structural and non-structural distortion  probabilities.
where a + b =1; a, b > 0. The higher Q o is, the better quality the image has. All NR metrics are limited and normalized to 0.
B q corresponds to a metric for blocking artifacts as defined in . This NR blocking metric is modeled in the spatial domain. It is based on three characteristics of perceivable blocking artifacts, the strength of the block boundaries, the discontinuities across the block boundaries and the flatness of the image. Compared to other NR blocking metrics, this metric has a good balance between complexity and performance. But the range of this metric depends on its parameter sets. Thus, we normalize this metric to achieve a range of 0.
The Pearson (CC) and the Spearman (SROCC) coefficients  were used to measure the correlation of the proposed metrics with mean opinion scores (MOS) from subjective ratings. High CC score and SROCC score relate to high accuracy, monotonicity and consistency of the metric under test . 95% confidence intervals of CC and SROCC were calculated based on Fisher's transformation . The computational complexity of the metric is also a very important property for practical applications. Therefore, the complexity of each metric was evaluated by measuring the mean runtime in seconds per image (s/img) over all datasets. The metrics evaluated in this section are all based on luminance information. Thus, the sRGB images were transformed into 8-bit grayscale images . The best performances of the evaluated NR metrics were highlighted in the corresponding tables. The operating system used for the experimental environment was Windows 7 64-bit Professional with i7-M620 2.67 GHz CPU and 8.00 GB memory. Two full-reference objective metrics, PSNR and SSIM , were also evaluated as benchmarks.
150 Gaussian blurred and 150 JPEG2000 compressed images of the CSIQ database as well as 175 Gaussian blurred and 288 JPEG2000 compressed images of the LIVE database were used to evaluate the sharpness metrics. In this experiment, 1/16 pixels from each image boundary were cut off. 3/4 of all partitioned blocks were ignored by the proposed sharpness metric LGS in its fragmentary local analysis. The metric CPBD r is extended from CPBD, which also ignores 3/4 of all blocks of the image as a benchmark. The parameter η was set to 1, since we assume that the proportions of the low/high frequency components are the same.
Performance of sharpness measures using the CSIQ database
Gaussian blur JPEG2000
Gaussian blur JPEG2000
Gaussian blur JPEG2000
Gaussian blur JPEG2000
Gaussian blur JPEG2000
Gaussian blur JPEG2000
Performance of contrast measures using the CSIQ database
Performance of the proposed overall metric using the CSIQ and the LIVE database
Automated quality analysis methods can be applied for efficient image optimization, both manual and automated. A prerequisite is the return of relevant image parameters (as shown in this article) as metadata by the quality analysis algorithm.
If a digital image does not match given quality benchmarks (like insufficient contrast for printed text), an operator may improve the image by using image processing software. Alternatively, an automated image quality optimization algorithm may adjust the image such as to match insufficient image parameters to given quality benchmarks--i.e., the amount of image optimization is not fixed but rather depends on the actual image quality. In this case, images with sufficient quality benchmarks will not be further processed. With digitized text material, where OCR quality or human readability depends on certain image parameters like contrast and sharpness, the use of quality metadata will provide good automated optimization results without overprocessing the digitized text (like halos around letters that occur due to oversharpening) . This approach can be compared to program dependent compression of an audio signal in the domain of broadcasting where the amount of signal processing is adjusted depending on the audio source and the required sound quality.
Quality metadata may also be used in reporting systems that support operators to quickly detect images below the quality threshold out of a large population. In practice, the operator may be able to halt the digitization process in case of scanner-related errors.
While it is obvious that, instead of checking the quality of thousands of scanned images per day manually, operators making use of automated quality analysis algorithms will save a tremendous amount time, it is also important to consider the response time of error detection. In case of information loss due to scanning or image processing errors--including all types of defects which cannot be corrected using automated quality optimization--books or documents have to be digitized once again. If a significant error is detected with a low response time, the book may have already been brought back to the archive and thus, digitizing it once more will consume even more human resources in addition to the re-digitizing step itself.
In another case, images may be below quality thresholds due to systematic scanner-related errors (e.g., offset in color temperature due to deteriorated scanner light bulbs). The larger the time lag between the occurrence of a systematic error and its detection, the more books or documents have to be re-digitized.
As a consequence, a high-throughput workflow that quickly detects errors will elicit a rapid halt of production and/or trigger an immediate redigitization. To sum up, mass digitization workflows heavily rely on automated tools as described in this article for the image quality to be instantaneously optimized.
Future study will deal with the adaption of the technologies described in this article to production environments of mass digitization workflows. In order to achieve this, two challenges--one related to the function and another relating to technical integration--have to be taken into account. The former can be further subdivided into
Implementation of further metrics, as noise and picture dynamic.
Correct measurement of quality parameters.
Quality analysis should be sufficiently robust and configurable to account for variations appearing in analog print media collections;
Optimize the metric performances and the respective complexity.
Optimize speed to analyze a given set of quality parameters.
Reduce required hardware resources to analyze a given set of quality parameters.
Automated target detection when used;
Providing the user meaningful interpretation of measurement results.
Hiding irrelevant data, i.e., information not immediately related to image quality;
Displaying quality parameters in a graphical way enabling the user a quick overview for a large set of digitized images.
Usage has to take into account the qualification level of digitization operators.
Quality reports should be both human- and machine-readable and concise.
Quality metadata should be provided in an achievable format,
while the latter challenge addresses requirements related to implementation costs, hardware technology, workflow framework, overall architecture etc., that are important but beyond the scope of this article.
On one hand, best practice guidelines from the cultural sector [58–60] have provided detailed image quality metrics as a basis for a quantifiable quality management in digitization workflows (for overview see ). On the other hand, a considerable subset of image quality parameters which cultural heritage organizations require for quality assessment in mass digitization workflows are measured by technologies described in this article. Hence, the results for mass digitization workflows comply with "real world" requirements from cultural heritage organizations and content holders such as publishers likewise.
This article presents a new quality assessment and improvement system for print media. After the digitization of print media, an automatic segmentation is applied to separate the scanned print media and the color checker. The color disparities between the original and the scanned color checkers are first measured to give a priori quality assessment of the digitization. No-reference quality metrics measure the eventual distortions of the scanned print media. The no-reference metrics are also integrated to an overall quality metric. An automatic image quality optimization algorithm is then applied to adjust the image to match given quality benchmarks. The LIVE and the CSIQ databases were used to evaluate the performance of these no-reference metrics. The evaluation shows that the proposed no-reference metrics are robust in measuring the corresponding distortions.
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